Prorocentrum lima (Ehrenberg) Dodge, 1975

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Prorocentrum lima

Alive cell (BF)

Photographer/artist Mats Kuylenstierna

Additional image information

Prorocentrum lima
Mats Kuylenstierna
Copyright holder
Maria Kuylenstierna
University of Gothenburg, Marine botany
Bengt Karlson
Alive cell (BF)
Image galleries
Kuylenstierna, Skagerrak-Kattegat


IDs in other systems
Tropic type
Structure of theca and with 50-80 marginal pores
Other remarks
A benthic species occasionally found in plankton. Toxic (Murakami et al. 1982)
Distribution: Widely
Harmfulness, IOC
This species is included in the IOC-UNESCO Taxonomic Reference List of Harmful Micro Algae.
Life form
length 31-47 µm, width 22-40 µm
Faust, M. A. 1991. Morphology of ciguatera-causing Prorocentrum lima (Pyrrophyta) from widely differing sites. Journal of Phycology. 27: 642-648.
Murakami, Y., Oshima, Y. & Yasumoto T. 1982. Identification of okadaic acid as a toxic component of a marine dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi. 48: 69-72.
Steidinger K. A. & Tangen, K. 1996. Dinoflagellates. In: Tomas, C. R. (ed.) Identifying marine diatoms and dinoflagellates. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, p. 387-584.
Zhou, J. & Fritz, L. 1993. Ultrastructure of two toxic marine dinoflagellates, Prorocentrum lima and Prorocentrum maculosum. Phycologia. 32: 444-450.


Species Prorocentrum lima
Author (Ehrenberg) Dodge 1975
Class Dinophyceae
Trophy AU
Geometric shape flattened ellipsoid
Formula p/6*l*d1*d2
Size class 1
Unit cell
Size range 50x60
Length(l1), µm 60.0
Diameter(d1), µm 50.0
Diameter(d2), µm 28.0
No. of cells/counting unit 1
Calculated volume, µm3 43 960
Calculated Carbon pg/counting unit 4 946


Olenina, I., Hajdu, S., Edler, L., Andersson, A., Wasmund, N., Busch, S., Göbel, J., Gromisz, S., Huseby, S., Huttunen, M., Jaanus, A., Kokkonen, P., Ledaine, I. and Niemkiewicz, E. 2006 Biovolumes and size-classes of phytoplankton in the Baltic Sea HELCOM Balt.Sea Environ. Proc. No. 106, 144pp. (PDF),

Change History

  • 2012-10-05 14:05:57 Ann-Turi Skjevik - Updated media metadata for Prorocentrum lima_3.jpg
  • 2012-10-05 14:05:07 Ann-Turi Skjevik - Added media: Prorocentrum lima_3.jpg
  • 2012-10-05 14:02:32 Ann-Turi Skjevik - Deleted media: Prorocentrum lima_3.JPG
  • 2012-08-29 14:31:30 Ann-Turi Skjevik - Updated media metadata for Prorocentrum lima_4.JPG
  • 2012-08-29 14:31:15 Ann-Turi Skjevik - Added media: Prorocentrum lima_4.JPG
  • 2012-08-29 14:30:55 Ann-Turi Skjevik - Updated media metadata for Prorocentrum lima_3.JPG
  • 2012-08-29 14:30:27 Ann-Turi Skjevik - Added media: Prorocentrum lima_3.JPG
  • 2011-09-25 17:55:48 Bengt Karlson - Updated media metadata for Prorocentrum lima_2.gif
  • 2011-09-25 17:54:20 Bengt Karlson - Added media: Prorocentrum lima_2.gif