Protoceratium reticulatum (Claparède & Lachmann) Bütschli, 1885

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Protoceratium reticulatum

A = A living cell at two focal planes; B = Cyst; C = Theca, arrow = pore. A&B (BF), C (SEM)

Photographer/artist Mats Kuylenstierna

Additional image information

Title
Protoceratium reticulatum
Photographer/artist
Mats Kuylenstierna
Copyright holder
Maria Kuylenstierna
Institute
University of Gothenburg, dept. of Marine botany
Contributing organisation
University of Gothenburg
Contributor
Bengt Karlson
Caption
A = A living cell at two focal planes; B = Cyst; C = Theca, arrow = pore. A&B (BF), C (SEM)
Geographic area
Skagerrak - Swedish coast
License
Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported
Technique
Light microscopy, SEM Scanning Electron Microscopy
Contrast enhancement
Not described
Stain
Sputter coated
Image galleries
Kuylenstierna, Skagerrak-Kattegat, Dinoflagellate cysts

Synonym names

  • Gonyaulax grindleyi

Description

IDs in other systems
Tropic type
A
Morphology
Shape and reticulation, pore
Other remarks
Toxic (?), see Steidinger & Tangen (1996) for a taxonomical discussion.
Distribution: Widely
Harmfulness, IOC
This species is included in the IOC-UNESCO Taxonomic Reference List of Harmful Micro Algae.
Life form
Solitary
Size
Length 28-43 µm, width 25-35 µm
Resting spore
+
Literature
Dodge, J. D. 1989. Some revisions of the family Gonyaulacaceae (Dinophyceae) Based on a scanning electron microscope study. Botanica Marina. 32: 275-298.
Hansen, G. & Larsen, J. 1992. Dinoflagellater i danske farvande. In: Thomsen, H. A. (ed.) Plankton i de indre danske farvande. Havforskning fra Miljøstyrelsen, Copenhagen, p. 45-155.
Hansen, G., Moestrup, Ø. & Roberts, K. R. 1996/97. Light and electron microscopical observations on Protoceratium reticulatum (Dinophyceae). Arch. Prostistenkd.147: 381-391.
Reinecke, P. 1967. Gonyaulax grindleyi sp. nov.: A dinoflagellate causing a red tide at Elands Bay, Cape Province, in December 1966. J. S. Afr. Bot. 33: 157-160:
Steidinger, K. A. & Tangen, K. 1996. Dinoflagellates. In: Tomas, C. R. (ed.) Identifying marine diatoms and dinoflagellates. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, p. 387-584.

Biovolumes

Species Protoceratium reticulatum
Author (Claparède & Lachmann) Bütschli 1885
Division DINOPHYTA (PYRROPHYTA)
Class Dinophyceae
Order GONYAULACALES
Trophy AU
Geometric shape sphere-10%
Formula p/6*d^3*0.9
Size class 1 2 3 4
Unit cell cell cell cell
Size range 23 30 34-35 35-45
Diameter(d1), µm 23.0 30.0 34.5 40.0
No. of cells/counting unit 1 1 1 1
Calculated volume, µm3 5 731 12 717 19 341 30 144
Calculated Carbon pg/counting unit 730 1 543 2 288 3 471

Source

Olenina, I., Hajdu, S., Edler, L., Andersson, A., Wasmund, N., Busch, S., Göbel, J., Gromisz, S., Huseby, S., Huttunen, M., Jaanus, A., Kokkonen, P., Ledaine, I. and Niemkiewicz, E. 2006 Biovolumes and size-classes of phytoplankton in the Baltic Sea HELCOM Balt.Sea Environ. Proc. No. 106, 144pp. (PDF),
PEG_BVOL.zip

Change History

  • 2012-09-10 14:19:42 Ann-Turi Skjevik - Updated media metadata for Protoceratium reticulatum_5.jpg
  • 2012-09-10 14:19:33 Ann-Turi Skjevik - Added media: Protoceratium reticulatum_5.jpg
  • 2012-09-10 14:18:40 Ann-Turi Skjevik - Updated media metadata for Protoceratium reticulatum_4.jpg
  • 2012-09-10 14:17:57 Ann-Turi Skjevik - Added media: Protoceratium reticulatum_4.jpg
  • 2012-09-04 12:09:33 Malin Mohlin - Updated media metadata for Protoceratium reticulatum_1.JPG
  • 2012-09-04 12:05:14 Malin Mohlin - Updated media metadata for Protoceratium reticulatum_1.JPG
  • 2012-09-03 16:24:34 Ann-Turi Skjevik - Updated media metadata for Protoceratium reticulatum_3.JPG
  • 2012-09-03 16:24:20 Ann-Turi Skjevik - Added media: Protoceratium reticulatum_3.JPG
  • 2012-09-03 16:23:48 Ann-Turi Skjevik - Deleted media: Protoceratium reticulatum_3.JPG
  • 2012-08-29 14:34:27 Ann-Turi Skjevik - Updated media metadata for Protoceratium reticulatum_3.JPG
  • 2012-08-29 14:33:58 Ann-Turi Skjevik - Added media: Protoceratium reticulatum_3.JPG
  • 2012-08-29 14:33:44 Ann-Turi Skjevik - Updated media metadata for Protoceratium reticulatum_1.JPG
  • 2012-08-29 14:33:20 Ann-Turi Skjevik - Added media: Protoceratium reticulatum_1.JPG
  • 2011-10-05 12:26:23 Bengt Karlson - Deleted media: Protoceratium reticulatum_1.jpg
  • 2011-10-04 06:59:38 Bengt Karlson - Updated media metadata for Protoceratium reticulatum_2.gif
  • 2011-10-03 20:55:44 Bengt Karlson - Updated media metadata for Protoceratium reticulatum_2.gif
  • 2011-10-03 20:52:56 Bengt Karlson - Added media: Protoceratium reticulatum_2.gif
  • 2011-09-15 11:45:15 Bengt Karlson - Updated media metadata for Protoceratium reticulatum_1.jpg
  • 2011-09-15 11:31:54 Bengt Karlson - Added media: Protoceratium reticulatum_1.jpg